HAND SCRAPING - This is a process where a factory worker will use sand paper to remove the colour from the surface of the jean to create a worn “lived in” look. This is mainly applied to areas of natural wear e.g. front thigh and back seat. This used to be done with a high pressured hose spraying sand onto the denim to remove the colour; however this has now been banned as it is dangerous for the factory workers.
HONEYCOMBING - This refers to the honeycomb effect seen on the back of the knees, which is brought on through wear and tear.
INDIGO- This is the dye used for Denim. Originally from the indigo plant but now created synthetically. Indigo’s inherent features are good colour fastness to water and light, a continual fading, and its inability to penetrate fibres completely. This allows for an individual and irregular look to be created.
Inseam – The seam running along the inside of the leg. This is what you measure to ensure you are buying the correct length of jeans for your height and leg lengths.
INSEAM - This is the seam on the inner leg. This is changed for the different leg lengths.
LEFT HAND TWILL - A left hand twill occurs when the lines run upwards towards the left on the front of the fabric. Sometimes referred to as ‘S’ Twills, this usually gives a softer handle to the denim.
MILL - This is the name given to the factories producing the denim fabric.
OPEN END YARN - This process is introduced after the fibre has been carded (cleaned by combing). The carded yarn (sliver) is fed into an open end spinning unit, which separates the fibres, and twists them together to form spun yarn, the yarn is then wound onto cones/spools. An open end yarn is not as uniform as ring spun yarn and the surface of the yarn is not smooth. Used in cheaper quality denims.
PERFORMANCE FABRICS – There’s constant innovation in denim fabrics, from stretchy and super soft Tencel, which retains it’s shape and resists creasing to COOLMAX which is breathable and lightweight.
PP SPRAY- (Potassium permanganate) can be used instead of hand scrapping to achieve the same affect. PP Spray is a chemical that reacts to the denim removing the colour from the denim. This can be applied by a spray gun or a cloth dipped into the PP solution and rubbed on to the desired area. PP Spray is applied before the jean is washed. As the jean under goes washing the solution reacts and removes the dye from the areas it has been applied to. Different factories use different methods to achieve the same look. See image below for an example of PP Spray detail.